Mathematics
The 100 Prisoner Problem

The 100 Prisoner Problem

Imagine if tomorrow you were abducted, and before you knew it, you were trapped in a room with 99 other people who seemed to know nothing more about what was happening than you. You notice that everyone is wearing an orange jumpsuit, which is uniquely numbered. You...

L’Hôpital’s Rule

L’Hôpital’s Rule

Some of you may have heard of the name L’Hôpital whilst you were at school, but why was it so important? L’Hôpital’s rule, more pedantically known as “la régle de L’Hôpital”, is a highly useful technique for finding the limit of complicated expressions. To refresh...

Infinite Hotel Paradox

Infinite Hotel Paradox

Suppose you have a hotel with infinitely many occupied rooms. Now another guest shows up, what would you do? It turns out that you can still accommodate him. In fact, you can actually accommodate a bus of infinitely many guests and even infinite busses of infinitely...

The Sausage Catastrophe

The Sausage Catastrophe

Introduction Contrary to what you might expect, this article is not actually about sausages. It is not even about food at all. Instead, the sausage catastrophe is a mathematical phenomenon that occurs when studying the theory of finite sphere packing.  Finite...

The Seven Bridges of Königsberg

The Seven Bridges of Königsberg

Imagine you are taking a stroll around the 18th century Prussian city of Königsberg (currently Kaliningrad, Russia). The river Pregel runs through Königsberg and there are two large islands in this river. The islands are connected to each other and to the mainland by...

Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem

Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem

In mathematics, we like proofs. For thousands of years, mathematicians believed that we would always be able to say that a statement is true or false, and we do this by proving it. No one ever questioned whether this was always possible until 1931, when Austrian...

Fractals

Fractals

In 1904, Swedish mathematician Niels Fabian Helge von Koch discovered a curve with finite area but infinite length. Later, one would call these fractals. We start with an equilateral triangle. On each edge, we find the middle third. On the outside of that middle...

Infinite Series

Infinite Series

An infinite series is a sum of infinitely many quantities. Series play a very relevant role in calculus and its generalizations such as functional analysis and discrete mathematics. Since summing infinitely many elements is hard to grasp, a better way to describe an...

The moving sofa problem

The moving sofa problem

Mathematics is undeniably beautiful in a certain way, providing us answers to many of life’s complex issues. It finds itself in all aspects of society, and has played a major role for thousands of years. However, despite our deep understanding, there are still many...

The Four-Color Theorem

The Four-Color Theorem

The Four-Color Theorem is a theorem that has its roots in graph theory. The theorem states that any planar graph can be colored properly with four colors. Here properly colored means that no two vertices of the graph that are connected are colored using the same...

A triangle that changed the world

A triangle that changed the world

When you think of mathematics, you imagine a sea of numbers, formulae and relationships. This is, of course, as we know, quite often the case. However, mathematics hides quite interesting relationships you might not have thought of before. One of the most common...

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